In a new Lowy Institute Analysis launched today, Monash University academic Andrew Zammit argues that Australians fighting in Iraq and Syria pose a serious national security threat for Australia. He examines the options for responding to that threat, including through non-coercive means. The Australian Government has described the foreign fighter threat as its 'number-one national security priority' and raised the National Terrorism Public Alert from medium to high in September 2014.

Australian foreign fighters: Risks and Responses argues that non-coercive elements have played a role in Australia’s counter-terrorism approach for several years, but past measures are not suited to the current environment:

Returned foreign fighters have been involved in many of the most serious jihadist plots in the West, including in Australia. Returnees from Syria have already engaged in terrorist plots in Europe, and the large number of Australians involved with groups such as IS and Jabhat al-Nusra raises well-founded fears of an increased threat at home.

Zammit concludes that Australia can learn much from European countries, which have extensive experience applying non-coercive measures to radicalised individuals, including foreign fighters. However, he warns that any Australian approach must be carefully calibrated for the local context.

Download and read the full paper on the Lowy Institute website.